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More background research into Cyberbullying

The term “cyberbullying” was first coined and defined by Canadian educator and anti-bullying activist Bill Belsey, as “the use of information and communication technologies to support deliberate, repeated, and hostile behavior by an individual or group, that is intended to harm others.”

Cyberbullying has subsequently been defined as “when the Internet, cell phones or other devices are used to send or post text or images intended to hurt or embarrass another person”. Other researchers use similar language to describe the phenomenon.

Cyberbullying can be as simple as continuing to send e-mail to someone who has said they want no further contact with the sender, but it may also include threats, sexual remarks, pejorative labels (i.e., hate speech), ganging up on victims by making them the subject of ridicule in forums, and posting false statements as fact aimed at humiliation.

Cyberbullies may disclose victims’ personal data (e.g. real name, address, or workplace/schools) at websites or forums or may pose as the identity of a victim for the purpose of publishing material in their name that defames or ridicules them. Some cyber-bullies may also send threatening and harassing emails and instant messages to the victims, while other post rumors or gossip and instigate others to dislike and gang up on the target.

Kids report being mean to each other online beginning as young as 2nd grade. According to research, boys initiate mean online activity earlier than girls do. However, by middle school, girls are more likely to engage in cyberbullying than boys do. Whether the bully is male or female, their purpose is to intentionally embarrass others, harass, intimidate, or make threats online to one another. This bullying occurs via email, text messaging, posts to blogs, and Web sites.

Though the use of sexual remarks and threats are sometimes present in cyberbullying, it is not the same as sexual harassment and does not necessarily involve sexual predators.

-Wikipedia (Source)


Cyberbullying Statistics

Posted on
Half of all 14-year-olds are the victims of bullying, and cyberbullying is now one of the most common forms of abuse, a major survey of victimisation in schools shows.
The study of 15,000 children by the National Centre for Social Research found that although many teenagers try to stop parents getting involved or informing the school, when they do so, the child is significantly less likely to be suffering from bullying two years later.
The Longitudinal Study of Young People in England has been tracking the lives of 15,000 children who turned 14 in 2004.

Introduction to courseowrk: Cyberbullying

Posted on

Cyberbullying” is when a child, preteen or teen is tormented, threatened, harassed, humiliated, embarrassed or otherwise targeted by another child, preteen or teen using the Internet, interactive and digital technologies or mobile phones. It has to have a minor on both sides, or at least have been instigated by a minor against another minor. Once adults become involved, it is plain and simple cyber-harassment or cyberstalking. Adult cyber-harassment or cyberstalking is NEVER called cyberbullying.

There are two kinds of cyberbullying, direct attacks (messages sent to your kids directly) and cyberbullying by proxy (using others to help cyberbully the victim, either with or without the accomplice’s knowledge). Because cyberbullying by proxy often gets adults involved in the harassment, it is much more dangerous.

When it comes to cyberbullying, they are often motivated by anger, revenge or frustration. Sometimes they do it for entertainment or because they are bored and have too much time on their hands and too many tech toys available to them. Many do it for laughs or to get a reaction.Because their motives differ, the solutions and responses to each type of cyberbullying incident has to differ too.

SWOT Analysis for Twitter

Swot Analysis



  • Gives people freedom  speech
  • Allows people who wouldn’t normally have an input on important matters, to give their opinion on current affairs
  • Even though the word count is low, people can still get their points across
  • If you go over the word count; you can link from within another page to allow followers to read the longer post
  • No advertising


  • Word count is limited
  • There is very limited filtering and moderation
  • It is open to anyone – could cause controversy if younger children were to go on it, especially concerning their safety – paedophiles


  • Could develop the ‘following’ scheme – possibly group different people you follow, in order to see the tweets that you class as more important; from different people
  • Has the ability to be the most popular and used social network in the world
  • Doesn’t advertise, but has ‘promoted tweets’ and ‘promoted themes’ which are paid for my different companies, and therefore they have the ability to develop into an extremely efficient way of advertising businesses; new products and themes


  • There is no filtering, so users have the ability to post discriminatory things on the site, as well as posts that may cause a reduction in the safety of the other users

Exam Question Practice

January 2011

06 New and digital media offers media institutions different ways of reaching audiences. Consider how ans why media institutions are using these techniques.


YouTube; ‘Vlogging’ -> User controlled

Twitter; constant/instant posts/updates -> Businesses using for updating clients/promoting to potential clients -> millions can gain access to it.

Facebook; millions of users access it ->finding progress -> ‘liking’ pages -> keeping up to date with people/groups/organisations

Tumblr; personal -> images -> anon

Newspapers; DMonline -> constant updating and new article posted -> more efficient than traditional paper articles -> more than once daily


BlackBerry Sever Crash; kept their users updated on progress (or lack off) via Twitter and Youtube    -> daily updates and reasurance (attempted) of network issues -> informing on what had gone wrong and what they were trying to do to fix it.

Case Study Questions

1. Has new and digital media had an impact upon ownership and control of the media institutions involved in your case study? Explain in detail any impact and what exactly has changed.

Twitter was created in March 2006 and launched internationally in June by Jack Dorsey. Although the creation was solely his idea; there are three other main characters controlling Twitters affairs. As Twitter is almost completely controlled by those who post on it however, the content cannot be filtered by these people and therefore it could be said that the public run Twitter, controlling the topics and what the rest of the users see. In this way, it gives the public their own voice, and now considering how popular Twitter is, and how much it’s user base has grown, that voice has become extremely powerful and influential. It allows people to react instantly to the news presented in the media; defining new media and we 3.0 all in one go, as the instant and undeniably influential power of this site begins to become apparent.

2.What impact has there been on the way in which the audience now consume the media products/texts involved in your case study? How does it differ from what went before?

The difference in how the audience now consume the media products and text is that now they can do it anywhere and at any time they like with new digital progressions such as Blackberry’s; iPhones; Androids and other smart phones that allow instantaneous access to the internet wherever you are. People can still buy newspapers and the news is still broadcast in the evening news and across the radio; as it traditionally always was; but now this new method of transportable knowledge is something which appeals to many people, especially if they are particularly interested in the current affairs but do not usually have time to access them, either through Radio; Television or a Newspaper.

3. What impact has there been on how the media institution now has to produce the texts and the way in which the texts/products are distributed and exhibited?

The way Twitter produces its text has never had to change, as it is such a new feature. This doesn’t mean to say that they haven’t made improvements and differentiated themselves from other social networking sites such as Facebook. They have taken different elements of the popular site; such as ‘likes’ and ‘sharing’ and developed them to fit their own context. ‘Liking’ is ‘favouriting’ and ‘sharing’ is ‘re-tweeting’.

4. Is the size of the audience any different now than before the impact of new and digitial media (or has the pattern of usage changed)?

The size of the audience has definitely expanded and enveloped a different amount of people after the proper launch and recognition of the new media epidemic. A graph I found shows the extreme rate at which twitter developed and became suddenly so popular. At the beginning of January 2009 the amount of tweets per day being posted was barely one million; however, by July of that year, this number went up to over ten million tweets per day; and eventually reaching almost fifty million tweets per day in January of 2010. This sudden expansion of users can be timed perfectly with the boom in New Media and web 3.0. This was around the time when people started taking notice of Twitter and its unique concept of only posting 140 characters at once. The audience became attracted by the idea of ‘Tweeting; from anywhere they wanted at any time and therefore this lead to the sudden rise in usage members.

5. Who are the primary target audience now and has this changed? Who was it before and how do you know?

The primary target audience for this institution will be young; intellectuals, probably students, but this however does not define the audience that the site has attracted; with people as old at 100 being reported as using the site. Also, it is a breeding ground for businesses that want to help promote themselves among younger people, and appear to be keeping up with current trends and adhering to the expectations of their own audiences whilst entertaining others. The Twitter website is extremely attractive to people who feel that voicing their opinions on relevant topics is extremely important and should therefore have the right to have and outlet such as Twitter to do so.

6. How have the audience responded to the changes? Is there more consumer choice? Is there evidence of a more pluralistic model? What evidence do you have to support this?

The only changes in the institution to date is a change of layout and of certain aspects that have been developed to improve the services that Twitter provides and has not so much been the cause of any upset of anger towards the company; as it has not changed people’s ability to access the site or complete the actions that the site was created for.

7. What concerns/considerations are there (if any) for the media institutions involved in your case study as a result of the impact of new and digital media?

I think a definite concern of Twitter’s management would be the lack of control they have over what is publicised on their site; and the fact that they could be liable for any illegal happening on the website; such as earlier in the year when people were using social networking sites to organise looting and violence during England’s riots.

8. What are the political and social implications of the new technologies and the methods of their consumption?


9. Consider the effects so far, and possible effects in the future, on media institutions involved in your case study.

The effect of media institutions in my case study allows Twitter to develop as a brand; as other businesses and websites are logging into the site to promote themselves for themselves; and not have to pay out for anything, unlike normal, traditional advertising and promotion. The effect of this on Twitter in the future could mean that there will be too many businesses set up on the site; which could put some people off visiting if they only do so for social reasons, resulting in a decline of activity from users. 

10. What issues may there be regarding media effects and/or regulation/ censorship as a result of changes due to new and digital media?

Censorship on Twitter is extremely hard to put I place as there are so many users posting new ‘Tweets’ each second and they’re not monitored by members of staff or approved before they are posted. This makes the website quite powerful in terms of its available influence over not only the users but the people who may simply read the sight. Regulations are also extremely hard to monitor if people are complying with them; as they are not able to scan each tweet sent every second to check whether or not people are sticking to, or breaking protocol; which would therefore result in their exclusion from the site.

11. Are there any cross cultural factors and/ or effects of globalisation involved in the impact of new technology on your case study?

The company used in my case study has almost defined Globalisation through new media – it has allowed people and users across the world to communicate in short bursts every second of every day; and the news is shared within nanoseconds of being sent. It allows different cultures to come together to interact with one another and gain knowledge about each other’s cultures. It has created links between countries that were not present before the rise of new media and the impact of such social networking sites such as Twitter.

12. Consider theoretical perspectives in relation to the impact of new/digital media in your case study.


Case Study

In my case study I will be researching into the claim that  ‘Twitter rivals traditional news methods’.

Twitter is a product of New Media from web 2.0 and it allows normal, everyday people to instantainiously  post their own personal views  and provide them with freedom of speech, ultimately giving people a voice in society.

 It challenges traditional methods of delevering news and braodcasting people’s view on the subject as it allows people to react immediately where as the original way to learn of news and events happening around the world would be too wait for the 6 o’clock or 10 o’clock news; or to read the paper in the morning, whilst New Media products such as Twitter allow instant access to the news and gives people the opportunity to react to it.

Below are a few links that may help me with my research into the developments of New Media; specifically Twitter with Social Networking.